Disagreement Between Paul and Barnabas
36 Some time later Paul said to Barnabas, “Let us go back and visit the believers in all the towns(A) where we preached the word of the Lord(B) and see how they are doing.” 37 Barnabas wanted to take John, also called Mark,(C) with them, 38 but Paul did not think it wise to take him, because he had deserted them(D) in Pamphylia and had not continued with them in the work. 39 They had such a sharp disagreement that they parted company. Barnabas took Mark and sailed for Cyprus, 40 but Paul chose Silas(E) and left, commended by the believers to the grace of the Lord.(F) 41 He went through Syria(G) and Cilicia,(H) strengthening the churches.(I)
Timothy Joins Paul and Silas
16 Paul came to Derbe and then to Lystra,(J) where a disciple named Timothy(K) lived, whose mother was Jewish and a believer(L) but whose father was a Greek. 2 The believers(M) at Lystra and Iconium(N) spoke well of him. 3 Paul wanted to take him along on the journey, so he circumcised him because of the Jews who lived in that area, for they all knew that his father was a Greek.(O) 4 As they traveled from town to town, they delivered the decisions reached by the apostles and elders(P) in Jerusalem(Q) for the people to obey.(R) 5 So the churches were strengthened(S) in the faith and grew daily in numbers.(T)
Paul’s Vision of the Man of Macedonia
6 Paul and his companions traveled throughout the region of Phrygia(U) and Galatia,(V) having been kept by the Holy Spirit from preaching the word in the province of Asia.(W) 7 When they came to the border of Mysia, they tried to enter Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus(X) would not allow them to. 8 So they passed by Mysia and went down to Troas.(Y) 9 During the night Paul had a vision(Z) of a man of Macedonia(AA) standing and begging him, “Come over to Macedonia and help us.” 10 After Paul had seen the vision, we(AB) got ready at once to leave for Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to preach the gospel(AC) to them.
Lydia’s Conversion in Philippi
11 From Troas(AD) we put out to sea and sailed straight for Samothrace, and the next day we went on to Neapolis. 12 From there we traveled to Philippi,(AE) a Roman colony and the leading city of that district[a] of Macedonia.(AF) And we stayed there several days.
13 On the Sabbath(AG) we went outside the city gate to the river, where we expected to find a place of prayer. We sat down and began to speak to the women who had gathered there. 14 One of those listening was a woman from the city of Thyatira(AH) named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth. She was a worshiper of God. The Lord opened her heart(AI) to respond to Paul’s message. 15 When she and the members of her household(AJ) were baptized,(AK) she invited us to her home. “If you consider me a believer in the Lord,” she said, “come and stay at my house.” And she persuaded us.
Paul and Silas in Prison
16 Once when we were going to the place of prayer,(AL) we were met by a female slave who had a spirit(AM) by which she predicted the future. She earned a great deal of money for her owners by fortune-telling. 17 She followed Paul and the rest of us, shouting, “These men are servants of the Most High God,(AN) who are telling you the way to be saved.” 18 She kept this up for many days. Finally Paul became so annoyed that he turned around and said to the spirit, “In the name of Jesus Christ I command you to come out of her!” At that moment the spirit left her.(AO)
19 When her owners realized that their hope of making money(AP) was gone, they seized Paul and Silas(AQ) and dragged(AR) them into the marketplace to face the authorities. 20 They brought them before the magistrates and said, “These men are Jews, and are throwing our city into an uproar(AS) 21 by advocating customs unlawful for us Romans(AT) to accept or practice.”(AU)
22 The crowd joined in the attack against Paul and Silas, and the magistrates ordered them to be stripped and beaten with rods.(AV) 23 After they had been severely flogged, they were thrown into prison, and the jailer(AW) was commanded to guard them carefully. 24 When he received these orders, he put them in the inner cell and fastened their feet in the stocks.(AX)
25 About midnight(AY) Paul and Silas(AZ) were praying and singing hymns(BA) to God, and the other prisoners were listening to them. 26 Suddenly there was such a violent earthquake that the foundations of the prison were shaken.(BB) At once all the prison doors flew open,(BC) and everyone’s chains came loose.(BD) 27 The jailer woke up, and when he saw the prison doors open, he drew his sword and was about to kill himself because he thought the prisoners had escaped.(BE) 28 But Paul shouted, “Don’t harm yourself! We are all here!”
31 They replied, “Believe(BH) in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved(BI)—you and your household.”(BJ) 32 Then they spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all the others in his house. 33 At that hour of the night(BK) the jailer took them and washed their wounds; then immediately he and all his household were baptized.(BL) 34 The jailer brought them into his house and set a meal before them; he(BM) was filled with joy because he had come to believe in God—he and his whole household.
35 When it was daylight, the magistrates sent their officers to the jailer with the order: “Release those men.” 36 The jailer(BN) told Paul, “The magistrates have ordered that you and Silas be released. Now you can leave. Go in peace.”(BO)
37 But Paul said to the officers: “They beat us publicly without a trial, even though we are Roman citizens,(BP) and threw us into prison. And now do they want to get rid of us quietly? No! Let them come themselves and escort us out.”
38 The officers reported this to the magistrates, and when they heard that Paul and Silas were Roman citizens, they were alarmed.(BQ) 39 They came to appease them and escorted them from the prison, requesting them to leave the city.(BR) 40 After Paul and Silas came out of the prison, they went to Lydia’s house,(BS) where they met with the brothers and sisters(BT) and encouraged them. Then they left.
17 When Paul and his companions had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica,(BU) where there was a Jewish synagogue. 2 As was his custom, Paul went into the synagogue,(BV) and on three Sabbath(BW) days he reasoned with them from the Scriptures,(BX) 3 explaining and proving that the Messiah had to suffer(BY) and rise from the dead.(BZ) “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Messiah,”(CA) he said. 4 Some of the Jews were persuaded and joined Paul and Silas,(CB) as did a large number of God-fearing Greeks and quite a few prominent women.
5 But other Jews were jealous; so they rounded up some bad characters from the marketplace, formed a mob and started a riot in the city.(CC) They rushed to Jason’s(CD) house in search of Paul and Silas in order to bring them out to the crowd.[b] 6 But when they did not find them, they dragged(CE) Jason and some other believers(CF) before the city officials, shouting: “These men who have caused trouble all over the world(CG) have now come here,(CH) 7 and Jason has welcomed them into his house. They are all defying Caesar’s decrees, saying that there is another king, one called Jesus.”(CI) 8 When they heard this, the crowd and the city officials were thrown into turmoil. 9 Then they made Jason(CJ) and the others post bond and let them go.
10 As soon as it was night, the believers sent Paul and Silas(CK) away to Berea.(CL) On arriving there, they went to the Jewish synagogue.(CM) 11 Now the Berean Jews were of more noble character than those in Thessalonica,(CN) for they received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures(CO) every day to see if what Paul said was true.(CP) 12 As a result, many of them believed, as did also a number of prominent Greek women and many Greek men.(CQ)
13 But when the Jews in Thessalonica learned that Paul was preaching the word of God at Berea,(CR) some of them went there too, agitating the crowds and stirring them up. 14 The believers(CS) immediately sent Paul to the coast, but Silas(CT) and Timothy(CU) stayed at Berea. 15 Those who escorted Paul brought him to Athens(CV) and then left with instructions for Silas and Timothy to join him as soon as possible.(CW)
16 While Paul was waiting for them in Athens, he was greatly distressed to see that the city was full of idols. 17 So he reasoned in the synagogue(CX) with both Jews and God-fearing Greeks, as well as in the marketplace day by day with those who happened to be there. 18 A group of Epicurean and Stoic philosophers began to debate with him. Some of them asked, “What is this babbler trying to say?” Others remarked, “He seems to be advocating foreign gods.” They said this because Paul was preaching the good news(CY) about Jesus and the resurrection.(CZ) 19 Then they took him and brought him to a meeting of the Areopagus,(DA) where they said to him, “May we know what this new teaching(DB) is that you are presenting? 20 You are bringing some strange ideas to our ears, and we would like to know what they mean.” 21 (All the Athenians(DC) and the foreigners who lived there spent their time doing nothing but talking about and listening to the latest ideas.)
22 Paul then stood up in the meeting of the Areopagus(DD) and said: “People of Athens! I see that in every way you are very religious.(DE) 23 For as I walked around and looked carefully at your objects of worship, I even found an altar with this inscription: to an unknown god. So you are ignorant of the very thing you worship(DF)—and this is what I am going to proclaim to you.
24 “The God who made the world and everything in it(DG) is the Lord of heaven and earth(DH) and does not live in temples built by human hands.(DI) 25 And he is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything. Rather, he himself gives everyone life and breath and everything else.(DJ) 26 From one man he made all the nations, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he marked out their appointed times in history and the boundaries of their lands.(DK) 27 God did this so that they would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from any one of us.(DL) 28 ‘For in him we live and move and have our being.’[c](DM) As some of your own poets have said, ‘We are his offspring.’[d]
29 “Therefore since we are God’s offspring, we should not think that the divine being is like gold or silver or stone—an image made by human design and skill.(DN) 30 In the past God overlooked(DO) such ignorance,(DP) but now he commands all people everywhere to repent.(DQ) 31 For he has set a day when he will judge(DR) the world with justice(DS) by the man he has appointed.(DT) He has given proof of this to everyone by raising him from the dead.”(DU)
32 When they heard about the resurrection of the dead,(DV) some of them sneered, but others said, “We want to hear you again on this subject.” 33 At that, Paul left the Council. 34 Some of the people became followers of Paul and believed. Among them was Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus,(DW) also a woman named Damaris, and a number of others.
18 After this, Paul left Athens(DX) and went to Corinth.(DY) 2 There he met a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla,(DZ) because Claudius(EA) had ordered all Jews to leave Rome. Paul went to see them, 3 and because he was a tentmaker as they were, he stayed and worked with them.(EB) 4 Every Sabbath(EC) he reasoned in the synagogue,(ED) trying to persuade Jews and Greeks.
5 When Silas(EE) and Timothy(EF) came from Macedonia,(EG) Paul devoted himself exclusively to preaching, testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Messiah.(EH) 6 But when they opposed Paul and became abusive,(EI) he shook out his clothes in protest(EJ) and said to them, “Your blood be on your own heads!(EK) I am innocent of it.(EL) From now on I will go to the Gentiles.”(EM)
7 Then Paul left the synagogue and went next door to the house of Titius Justus, a worshiper of God.(EN) 8 Crispus,(EO) the synagogue leader,(EP) and his entire household(EQ) believed in the Lord; and many of the Corinthians who heard Paul believed and were baptized.
9 One night the Lord spoke to Paul in a vision:(ER) “Do not be afraid;(ES) keep on speaking, do not be silent. 10 For I am with you,(ET) and no one is going to attack and harm you, because I have many people in this city.” 11 So Paul stayed in Corinth for a year and a half, teaching them the word of God.(EU)
12 While Gallio was proconsul(EV) of Achaia,(EW) the Jews of Corinth made a united attack on Paul and brought him to the place of judgment. 13 “This man,” they charged, “is persuading the people to worship God in ways contrary to the law.”
14 Just as Paul was about to speak, Gallio said to them, “If you Jews were making a complaint about some misdemeanor or serious crime, it would be reasonable for me to listen to you. 15 But since it involves questions about words and names and your own law(EX)—settle the matter yourselves. I will not be a judge of such things.” 16 So he drove them off. 17 Then the crowd there turned on Sosthenes(EY) the synagogue leader(EZ) and beat him in front of the proconsul; and Gallio showed no concern whatever.
Priscilla, Aquila and Apollos
18 Paul stayed on in Corinth for some time. Then he left the brothers and sisters(FA) and sailed for Syria,(FB) accompanied by Priscilla and Aquila.(FC) Before he sailed, he had his hair cut off at Cenchreae(FD) because of a vow he had taken.(FE) 19 They arrived at Ephesus,(FF) where Paul left Priscilla and Aquila. He himself went into the synagogue and reasoned with the Jews. 20 When they asked him to spend more time with them, he declined. 21 But as he left, he promised, “I will come back if it is God’s will.”(FG) Then he set sail from Ephesus. 22 When he landed at Caesarea,(FH) he went up to Jerusalem and greeted the church and then went down to Antioch.(FI)
24 Meanwhile a Jew named Apollos,(FM) a native of Alexandria, came to Ephesus.(FN) He was a learned man, with a thorough knowledge of the Scriptures. 25 He had been instructed in the way of the Lord, and he spoke with great fervor[e](FO) and taught about Jesus accurately, though he knew only the baptism of John.(FP) 26 He began to speak boldly in the synagogue. When Priscilla and Aquila(FQ) heard him, they invited him to their home and explained to him the way of God more adequately.
27 When Apollos wanted to go to Achaia,(FR) the brothers and sisters(FS) encouraged him and wrote to the disciples there to welcome him. When he arrived, he was a great help to those who by grace had believed. 28 For he vigorously refuted his Jewish opponents in public debate, proving from the Scriptures(FT) that Jesus was the Messiah.(FU)
Paul in Ephesus
19 While Apollos(FV) was at Corinth,(FW) Paul took the road through the interior and arrived at Ephesus.(FX) There he found some disciples 2 and asked them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit(FY) when[f] you believed?”
They answered, “No, we have not even heard that there is a Holy Spirit.”
3 So Paul asked, “Then what baptism did you receive?”
“John’s baptism,” they replied.
4 Paul said, “John’s baptism(FZ) was a baptism of repentance. He told the people to believe in the one coming after him, that is, in Jesus.”(GA) 5 On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.(GB) 6 When Paul placed his hands on them,(GC) the Holy Spirit came on them,(GD) and they spoke in tongues[g](GE) and prophesied. 7 There were about twelve men in all.
8 Paul entered the synagogue(GF) and spoke boldly there for three months, arguing persuasively about the kingdom of God.(GG) 9 But some of them(GH) became obstinate; they refused to believe and publicly maligned the Way.(GI) So Paul left them. He took the disciples(GJ) with him and had discussions daily in the lecture hall of Tyrannus. 10 This went on for two years,(GK) so that all the Jews and Greeks who lived in the province of Asia(GL) heard the word of the Lord.(GM)
11 God did extraordinary miracles(GN) through Paul, 12 so that even handkerchiefs and aprons that had touched him were taken to the sick, and their illnesses were cured(GO) and the evil spirits left them.
13 Some Jews who went around driving out evil spirits(GP) tried to invoke the name of the Lord Jesus over those who were demon-possessed. They would say, “In the name of the Jesus(GQ) whom Paul preaches, I command you to come out.” 14 Seven sons of Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, were doing this. 15 One day the evil spirit answered them, “Jesus I know, and Paul I know about, but who are you?” 16 Then the man who had the evil spirit jumped on them and overpowered them all. He gave them such a beating that they ran out of the house naked and bleeding.
17 When this became known to the Jews and Greeks living in Ephesus,(GR) they were all seized with fear,(GS) and the name of the Lord Jesus was held in high honor. 18 Many of those who believed now came and openly confessed what they had done. 19 A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly. When they calculated the value of the scrolls, the total came to fifty thousand drachmas.[h] 20 In this way the word of the Lord(GT) spread widely and grew in power.(GU)
21 After all this had happened, Paul decided[i] to go to Jerusalem,(GV) passing through Macedonia(GW) and Achaia.(GX) “After I have been there,” he said, “I must visit Rome also.”(GY) 22 He sent two of his helpers,(GZ) Timothy(HA) and Erastus,(HB) to Macedonia, while he stayed in the province of Asia(HC) a little longer.
The Riot in Ephesus
23 About that time there arose a great disturbance about the Way.(HD) 24 A silversmith named Demetrius, who made silver shrines of Artemis, brought in a lot of business for the craftsmen there. 25 He called them together, along with the workers in related trades, and said: “You know, my friends, that we receive a good income from this business.(HE) 26 And you see and hear how this fellow Paul has convinced and led astray large numbers of people here in Ephesus(HF) and in practically the whole province of Asia.(HG) He says that gods made by human hands are no gods at all.(HH) 27 There is danger not only that our trade will lose its good name, but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis will be discredited; and the goddess herself, who is worshiped throughout the province of Asia and the world, will be robbed of her divine majesty.”
28 When they heard this, they were furious and began shouting: “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”(HI) 29 Soon the whole city was in an uproar. The people seized Gaius(HJ) and Aristarchus,(HK) Paul’s traveling companions from Macedonia,(HL) and all of them rushed into the theater together. 30 Paul wanted to appear before the crowd, but the disciples(HM) would not let him. 31 Even some of the officials of the province, friends of Paul, sent him a message begging him not to venture into the theater.
32 The assembly was in confusion: Some were shouting one thing, some another.(HN) Most of the people did not even know why they were there. 33 The Jews in the crowd pushed Alexander to the front, and they shouted instructions to him. He motioned(HO) for silence in order to make a defense before the people. 34 But when they realized he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison for about two hours: “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”(HP)
35 The city clerk quieted the crowd and said: “Fellow Ephesians,(HQ) doesn’t all the world know that the city of Ephesus is the guardian of the temple of the great Artemis and of her image, which fell from heaven? 36 Therefore, since these facts are undeniable, you ought to calm down and not do anything rash. 37 You have brought these men here, though they have neither robbed temples(HR) nor blasphemed our goddess. 38 If, then, Demetrius and his fellow craftsmen(HS) have a grievance against anybody, the courts are open and there are proconsuls.(HT) They can press charges. 39 If there is anything further you want to bring up, it must be settled in a legal assembly. 40 As it is, we are in danger of being charged with rioting because of what happened today. In that case we would not be able to account for this commotion, since there is no reason for it.” 41 After he had said this, he dismissed the assembly.
Through Macedonia and Greece
20 When the uproar had ended, Paul sent for the disciples(HU) and, after encouraging them, said goodbye and set out for Macedonia.(HV) 2 He traveled through that area, speaking many words of encouragement to the people, and finally arrived in Greece, 3 where he stayed three months. Because some Jews had plotted against him(HW) just as he was about to sail for Syria,(HX) he decided to go back through Macedonia.(HY) 4 He was accompanied by Sopater son of Pyrrhus from Berea, Aristarchus(HZ) and Secundus from Thessalonica,(IA) Gaius(IB) from Derbe, Timothy(IC) also, and Tychicus(ID) and Trophimus(IE) from the province of Asia.(IF) 5 These men went on ahead and waited for us(IG) at Troas.(IH) 6 But we sailed from Philippi(II) after the Festival of Unleavened Bread, and five days later joined the others at Troas,(IJ) where we stayed seven days.
Eutychus Raised From the Dead at Troas
7 On the first day of the week(IK) we came together to break bread.(IL) Paul spoke to the people and, because he intended to leave the next day, kept on talking until midnight. 8 There were many lamps in the upstairs room(IM) where we were meeting. 9 Seated in a window was a young man named Eutychus, who was sinking into a deep sleep as Paul talked on and on. When he was sound asleep, he fell to the ground from the third story and was picked up dead. 10 Paul went down, threw himself on the young man(IN) and put his arms around him. “Don’t be alarmed,” he said. “He’s alive!”(IO) 11 Then he went upstairs again and broke bread(IP) and ate. After talking until daylight, he left. 12 The people took the young man home alive and were greatly comforted.
Paul’s Farewell to the Ephesian Elders
13 We went on ahead to the ship and sailed for Assos, where we were going to take Paul aboard. He had made this arrangement because he was going there on foot. 14 When he met us at Assos, we took him aboard and went on to Mitylene. 15 The next day we set sail from there and arrived off Chios. The day after that we crossed over to Samos, and on the following day arrived at Miletus.(IQ) 16 Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus(IR) to avoid spending time in the province of Asia,(IS) for he was in a hurry to reach Jerusalem,(IT) if possible, by the day of Pentecost.(IU)
17 From Miletus,(IV) Paul sent to Ephesus for the elders(IW) of the church. 18 When they arrived, he said to them: “You know how I lived the whole time I was with you,(IX) from the first day I came into the province of Asia.(IY) 19 I served the Lord with great humility and with tears(IZ) and in the midst of severe testing by the plots of my Jewish opponents.(JA) 20 You know that I have not hesitated to preach anything(JB) that would be helpful to you but have taught you publicly and from house to house. 21 I have declared to both Jews(JC) and Greeks that they must turn to God in repentance(JD) and have faith in our Lord Jesus.(JE)
22 “And now, compelled by the Spirit, I am going to Jerusalem,(JF) not knowing what will happen to me there. 23 I only know that in every city the Holy Spirit warns me(JG) that prison and hardships are facing me.(JH) 24 However, I consider my life worth nothing to me;(JI) my only aim is to finish the race(JJ) and complete the task(JK) the Lord Jesus has given me(JL)—the task of testifying to the good news of God’s grace.(JM)
25 “Now I know that none of you among whom I have gone about preaching the kingdom(JN) will ever see me again.(JO) 26 Therefore, I declare to you today that I am innocent of the blood of any of you.(JP) 27 For I have not hesitated to proclaim to you the whole will of God.(JQ) 28 Keep watch over yourselves and all the flock(JR) of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers.(JS) Be shepherds of the church of God,[j](JT) which he bought(JU) with his own blood.[k](JV) 29 I know that after I leave, savage wolves(JW) will come in among you and will not spare the flock.(JX) 30 Even from your own number men will arise and distort the truth in order to draw away disciples(JY) after them. 31 So be on your guard! Remember that for three years(JZ) I never stopped warning each of you night and day with tears.(KA)
32 “Now I commit you to God(KB) and to the word of his grace, which can build you up and give you an inheritance(KC) among all those who are sanctified.(KD) 33 I have not coveted anyone’s silver or gold or clothing.(KE) 34 You yourselves know that these hands of mine have supplied my own needs and the needs of my companions.(KF) 35 In everything I did, I showed you that by this kind of hard work we must help the weak, remembering the words the Lord Jesus himself said: ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’ ”
36 When Paul had finished speaking, he knelt down with all of them and prayed.(KG) 37 They all wept as they embraced him and kissed him.(KH) 38 What grieved them most was his statement that they would never see his face again.(KI) Then they accompanied him to the ship.(KJ)
On to Jerusalem
21 After we(KK) had torn ourselves away from them, we put out to sea and sailed straight to Kos. The next day we went to Rhodes and from there to Patara. 2 We found a ship crossing over to Phoenicia,(KL) went on board and set sail. 3 After sighting Cyprus and passing to the south of it, we sailed on to Syria.(KM) We landed at Tyre, where our ship was to unload its cargo. 4 We sought out the disciples(KN) there and stayed with them seven days. Through the Spirit(KO) they urged Paul not to go on to Jerusalem. 5 When it was time to leave, we left and continued on our way. All of them, including wives and children, accompanied us out of the city, and there on the beach we knelt to pray.(KP) 6 After saying goodbye to each other, we went aboard the ship, and they returned home.
7 We continued our voyage from Tyre(KQ) and landed at Ptolemais, where we greeted the brothers and sisters(KR) and stayed with them for a day. 8 Leaving the next day, we reached Caesarea(KS) and stayed at the house of Philip(KT) the evangelist,(KU) one of the Seven. 9 He had four unmarried daughters who prophesied.(KV)
10 After we had been there a number of days, a prophet named Agabus(KW) came down from Judea. 11 Coming over to us, he took Paul’s belt, tied his own hands and feet with it and said, “The Holy Spirit says,(KX) ‘In this way the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem will bind(KY) the owner of this belt and will hand him over to the Gentiles.’”(KZ)
12 When we heard this, we and the people there pleaded with Paul not to go up to Jerusalem. 13 Then Paul answered, “Why are you weeping and breaking my heart? I am ready not only to be bound, but also to die(LA) in Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.”(LB) 14 When he would not be dissuaded, we gave up(LC) and said, “The Lord’s will be done.”(LD)
15 After this, we started on our way up to Jerusalem.(LE) 16 Some of the disciples from Caesarea(LF) accompanied us and brought us to the home of Mnason, where we were to stay. He was a man from Cyprus(LG) and one of the early disciples.